Sperm Whale Skeleton at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758) Skeleton at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

الهيكل العظمي لحُوت العنبر في متحف التاريخ الطبيعي في مسقط ، سلطنة عُمان

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa

Article Reference:  Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa (2018). Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758) Skeleton at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 165, September 2018, pp. 1-31. Published by Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Department for Environmental Research and Media, National Research Center, University of Palestine, Gaza, State of Palestine. http://cetacea.webs.com/

هيكل ذكر حوت العنبر يتوسط قاعة الحُوت في متحف التاريخ الطبيعي في مسقط ، سلطنة عُمان ، بطول 14 متراً ، والذي جنح على شاطئ بركاء (الباطنة) على بُعد 60 كيلومتراً شمال غرب مسقط ، في سبتمبر 1986... وزن عظام هذا الحوت 3.5 طن ، ويُقدر وزن الحيوان الحي بحوالي 35 طناً ، ويُقدر عُمره بحوالي 25 عاماً ، وكان يُمكن أن يصل طوله إلى 18 متراً ... تصوير البروفيسور دكتور نورمان علي خلف ... 23.09.2017

A 14 meters long Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus) skeleton at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman … Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf … 23.09.2017. http://cetacea.webs.com/

On Saturday 23.09.2017, I visited the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. The museum falls under the Omani Ministry of Heritage and Culture. During my visit, I visited the Whale Hall, which contains skeletons of various cetacean species which had stranded on Omani beaches. The Cetacean skeletons belonged to: Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus), Dwarf Sperm Whale (Kogia simus), Killer Whale (Orcinus orca), False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens), Bryde’s Whale (Balaenoptera edeni), and Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis).


The huge skeleton which was displayed in the middle of the Whale Hall was of a male Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758), which stranded at Barka, Al Batinah, 60 kilometers northwest of Muscat, in September 1986. It was about 25 years old and 14 meters long, but could have grown to 18 meters. The bones weigh 3.5 tonnes and the live animal would have weighed about 35 tonnes.

All the skeleton bones are original, except the teeth and digits (replaced by wood), and the cartilage (replaced by plaster). The ear-bones are missing. The skeleton has been painted to preserve it and to reduce the oily smell.

مدخل قاعة الحوت في متحف التاريخ الطبيعي في مسقط ، سلطنة عُمان ... تصوير المؤلف ... 23.09.2017

The Whale Hall entrance at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman ... Photo by the Author … 23.09.2017. http://cetacea.webs.com/

The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), or cachalot, is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator. It is the only living member of genus Physeter, and one of three extant species in the sperm whale family, along with the pygmy sperm whale and dwarf sperm whale of the genus Kogia (Wikipedia).

The sperm whale is a pelagic mammal with a worldwide range, and will migrate seasonally for feeding and breeding. Females and young males live together in groups while mature males live solitary lives outside of the mating season. The females cooperate to protect and nurse their young. Females give birth every four to twenty years, and care for the calves for more than a decade. A mature sperm whale has few natural predators, although calves and weakened adults are sometimes killed by pods of orcas (Wikipedia).

Mature males average 16 metres (52 feet) in length but some may reach 20.5 metres (67 feet), with the head representing up to one-third of the animal's length. Plunging to 2,250 metres (7,382 feet), it is the second deepest diving mammal, following only the Cuvier's beaked whale (Wikipedia).

The sperm whale is a prominent user of echolocation and communication, with vocalization as loud as 230 decibels (re 1 µPa at 1 m) underwater. It has the largest brain of any animal on Earth, more than five times heavier than a human's. Sperm whales can live for more than 60 years (Wikipedia).

The spermaceti oil from which the whale derives its name was a prime target of the whaling industry, and was dominant for use in oil lamps, lubricants, and candles. Ambergris is a solid waxy waste product from its digestive system. It is still highly valued as a fixative in perfumes and other uses. It remains as flotsam from deceased whales, and is sought by beachcombers. The species is now protected by a whaling moratorium, and is currently listed as vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) (Wikipedia).

البروفيسور دكتور نورمان علي خلف أمام هيكل ذكر حوت العنبر والذي يتوسط قاعة الحُوت في متحف التاريخ الطبيعي في مسقط ، سلطنة عُمان .. تصوير المؤلف .. 23.09.2017

Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf infront of the Sperm Whale skeleton at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman .. Selfie by the Author .. 23.09.2017. http://cetacea.webs.com/

Etymology

The name ‘sperm whale’ is a truncation of ‘spermaceti whale’. Spermaceti, originally mistakenly identified as the whales' semen, is the semi-liquid, waxy substance found within the whale's head. The sperm whale is also known as the "cachalot", which is thought to derive from the archaic French for "tooth" or "big teeth", as preserved for example in ‘cachau’ in the Gascon dialect (a word of either Romance or Basque origin). The etymological dictionary of Corominas says the origin is uncertain, but it suggests that it comes from the Vulgar Latin cappula, plural of cappulum, "sword hilt". The word cachalot came to English via French from Spanish or Portuguese cachalote, perhaps from Galician/Portuguese cachola, "big head". The term is retained in the Russian word for the animal, кашалот (kashalot), as well as in many other languages (Wikipedia).

The scientific genus name Physeter comes from Greek physētēr (φυσητήρ), meaning "blowpipe, blowhole (of a whale)", or – as a pars pro toto – "whale". The specific name macrocephalus is Latinized from the Greek makrokephalos (μακροκέφαλος, meaning "big-headed"), from makros (μακρός, "large") + kefalos (κέφαλος, "head") (Wikipedia).

Its synonymous specific name catodon means "down-tooth", from the Greek elements cat(a)- ("below") and odn ("tooth"); so named because it has visible teeth only in its lower jaw. Another synonym australasianus ("Australasian") was applied to sperm whales in the southern hemisphere (Wikipedia).

منظر خلفي لهيكل حوت العنبر والذي يتوسط قاعة الحُوت في متحف التاريخ الطبيعي في مسقط ، سلطنة عُمان ... تصوير البروفيسور دكتور نورمان علي خلف ... 23.09.2017

A rear view of the 14 meters long Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus) skeleton at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman .. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf … 23.09.2017. http://cetacea.webs.com/

Taxonomy

The sperm whale belongs to the order Cetartiodactyla, the order containing all cetaceans and even-toed ungulates. It is a member of the unranked clade Cetacea, with all the whales, dolphins, and porpoises, and further classified into Odontoceti, containing all the toothed whales and dolphins. It is the sole extant species of its genus, Physeter, in the family Physeteridae. Two species of the related extant genus Kogia, the pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps and the dwarf sperm whale Kogia simus, are placed either in this family or in the family Kogiidae. In some taxonomic schemes the families Kogiidae and Physeteridae are combined as the superfamily Physeteroidea (Wikipedia).

The sperm whale is one of the species originally described by Linnaeus in 1758 in his eighteenth century work, ‘Systema Naturae’. He recognised four species in the genus Physeter. Experts soon realised that just one such species exists, although there has been debate about whether this should be named Physeter catodon or Physeter macrocephalus, two of the names used by Linnaeus. Both names are still used, although most recent authors now accept macrocephalus as the valid name, limiting catodon's status to a lesser synonym. Until 1974, the species was generally known as Physeter catodon. In that year, however, Husson & Holthuis proposed that the correct name should be Physeter macrocephalus, the second name in the genus Physeter published by Linnaeus concurrently with Physeter catodon. This proposition was based on the grounds that the names were synonyms published simultaneously, and, therefore, the ICZN Principle of the First Reviser should apply. In this instance, it led to the choice of Physeter macrocephalus over Physeter catodon, a view re-stated in Holthuis, 1987. This has been adopted by most subsequent authors, although Schevill (1986 and 1987) argued that macrocephalus was published with an inaccurate description and that therefore only the species catodon was valid, rendering the principle of "First Reviser" inapplicable. The most recent version of ITIS has altered its usage from Physeter catodon to  Physeter macrocephalus, following L. B. Holthuis and more recent (2008) discussions with relevant experts. Furthermore, The Taxonomy Committee of the Society for Marine Mammalogy, the largest international association of marine mammal scientists in the world, officially uses Physeter macrocephalus when publishing their definitive list of marine mammal species (Wikipedia).

أسنان الفك السُفلي لهيكل حوت العنبر في متحف التاريخ الطبيعي في مسقط ، سلطنة عُمان ... تصوير البروفيسور دكتور نورمان علي خلف ... 23.09.2017

Teeth of the lower jaw of the Sperm Whale skeleton at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman … Photo by the Author … 23.09.2017. http://cetacea.webs.com/

External appearance

The sperm whale is the largest toothed whale, with adult males measuring up to 20.5 metres (67 feet) long and weighing up to 57,000 kilograms (56 long tons; 63 short tons). By contrast, the second largest toothed whale (Baird's Beaked Whale) measures 12.8 metres (42 feet) and weighs up to 15 short tons (14,000 kg). The Nantucket Whaling Museum in Massachusetts, USA, has 5.5 metres (18 feet)-long jawbone. The museum claims that this individual was 24 metres (80 feet) long; the whale that sank the ‘Essex’ (one of the incidents behind ‘Moby-Dick’) was claimed to be 26 metres (85 feet). A similar size is reported from a jawbone from the British Natural History Museum in London. A 20 meters specimen is reported from a Soviet whaling fleet near the Kuril Islands in 1950. There is disagreement on the claims of adult males approaching or exceeding 24 metres (80 feet) in length (Wikipedia).

Extensive whaling may have decreased their size, as males were highly sought, primarily after World War II. Today, males do not usually exceed 18.3 metres (60 feet) in length or 51,000 kilograms (50 long tons; 56 short tons) in weight. Another view holds that exploitation by over-whaling had virtually no effect on the size of the bull sperm whales, and their size may have actually increased in current times on the basis of density dependent effects. Old males taken at Solander Islands, southern New Zealand, were recorded to be extremely large and unusually rich in blubbers (Wikipedia).

It is among the most sexually dimorphic of all cetaceans. At birth both sexes are about the same size, but mature males are typically 30% to 50% longer, and three times as massive as females (Wikipedia).

أسنان الفك السُفلي لهيكل حوت العنبر في متحف التاريخ الطبيعي في مسقط ، سلطنة عُمان ... تصوير البروفيسور دكتور نورمان علي خلف ... 23.09.2017

Teeth of the lower jaw of the Sperm Whale skeleton at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman … Photo by the Author … 23.09.2017. http://cetacea.webs.com/

The sperm whale's unique body is unlikely to be confused with any other species. The sperm whale's distinctive shape comes from its very large, block-shaped head, which can be one-quarter to one-third of the animal's length. The S-shaped blowhole is located very close to the front of the head and shifted to the whale's left. This gives rise to a distinctive bushy, forward-angled spray (Wikipedia).

The sperm whale's flukes (tail lobes) are triangular and very thick. Proportionally, they are larger than that of any other cetacean, and are very flexible. The whale lifts its flukes high out of the water as it begins a feeding dive. It has a series of ridges on the back's caudal third instead of a dorsal fin. The largest ridge was called the 'hump' by whalers, and can be mistaken for a dorsal fin because of its shape and size (Wikipedia).

In contrast to the smooth skin of most large whales, its back skin is usually wrinkly and has been likened to a prune by whale-watching enthusiasts. Albinos have been reported (Wikipedia).

مُخطط للهيكل العظمي لحوت عنبر بركاء مع مُخطط جسم الحوت بكامله .. تصوير المؤلف ... 23.09.2017

A sketch of the Barka Sperm Whale skeleton, with a silhouette of the whole animal ... Photo by the Author ... 23.09.2017. http://cetacea.webs.com/

Skeleton

The ribs are bound to the spine by flexible cartilage, which allows the ribcage to collapse rather than snap under high pressure. While sperm whales are well adapted to diving, repeated dives to great depths have long-term effects. Bones show the same pitting that signals decompression sickness in humans. Older skeletons showed the most extensive pitting, whereas calves showed no damage. This damage may indicate that sperm whales are susceptible to decompression sickness, and sudden surfacing could be lethal to them (Wikipedia).

Like all cetaceans, the spine of the sperm whale has reduced zygapophysial joints, of which the remnants are modified and are positioned higher on the vertebral dorsal spinous process, hugging it laterally, to prevent extensive lateral bending and facilitate more dorso-ventral bending. These evolutionary modifications make the spine more flexible but weaker than the spines of terrestrial vertebrates (Wikipedia).

As with other toothed whales, the skull of the sperm whale is asymmetrical so as to aid echolocation. Sound waves that strike the whale from different directions will not be channeled in the same way. Within the basin of the cranium, the openings of the bony narial tubes (from which the nasal passages spring) are skewed towards the left side of the skull (Wikipedia).

منظر خلفي لهيكل حوت العنبر والذي يتوسط قاعة الحُوت في متحف التاريخ الطبيعي في مسقط ، سلطنة عُمان ... تصوير البروفيسور دكتور نورمان علي خلف ... 23.09.2017

A rear view of the 14 meters long Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus) skeleton at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman ... Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf … 23.09.2017. http://cetacea.webs.com/

Jaws and Teeth

The sperm whale's lower jaw is very narrow and underslung. The sperm whale has 18 to 26 teeth on each side of its lower jaw which fit into sockets in the upper jaw. The teeth are cone-shaped and weigh up to 1 kilogram each. The teeth are functional, but do not appear to be necessary for capturing or eating squid, as well-fed animals have been found without teeth or even with deformed jaws. One hypothesis is that the teeth are used in aggression between males. Mature males often show scars which seem to be caused by the teeth. Rudimentary teeth are also present in the upper jaw, but these rarely emerge into the mouth. Analyzing the teeth is the preferred method for determining a whale's age. Like the age-rings in a tree, the teeth build distinct layers of cementum and dentine as they grow (Wikipedia).

مكان إلتقاء الفكين العلوي والسُفلي مع عظمة اللسان في هيكل حوت العنبر في قاعة الحُوت في متحف التاريخ الطبيعي في مسقط ، سلطنة عُمان ... تصوير البروفيسور دكتور نورمان علي خلف ... 23.09.2017

Rostrum (beak), mandible (bottom jaw) and hyoid (tongue bone) area of the Sperm Whale skeleton at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman ... Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf … 23.09.2017. http://cetacea.webs.com/

Brain

The brain is the largest known of any modern or extinct animal, weighing on average about 7.8 kilograms, more than five times heavier than a human's, and has a volume of about 8,000 cm3. Although larger brains generally correlate with higher intelligence, it is not the only factor. Elephants and dolphins also have larger brains than humans. The sperm whale has a lower encephalization quotient than many other whale and dolphin species, lower than that of non-human anthropoid apes, and much lower than humans' (Wikipedia).

The sperm whale's cerebrum is the largest in all mammalia, both in absolute and relative terms. The olfactory system is reduced, suggesting that the sperm whale has a poor sense of taste and smell. By contrast, the auditory system is enlarged. The pyramidal tract is poorly developed, reflecting the reduction of its limbs (Wikipedia).

منظر أمامي لهيكل حوت العنبر في قاعة الحُوت في متحف التاريخ الطبيعي في مسقط ، سلطنة عُمان ... تصوير البروفيسور دكتور نورمان علي خلف ... 23.09.2017

Front view of the Sperm Whale skeleton at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman ... Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf … 23.09.2017. http://cetacea.webs.com/

Biological Systems

The sperm whale respiratory system has adapted to cope with drastic pressure changes when diving. The flexible ribcage allows lung collapse, reducing nitrogen intake, and metabolism can decrease to conserve oxygen. Between dives, the sperm whale surfaces to breathe for about eight minutes before diving again. Odontoceti (toothed whales) breathe air at the surface through a single, S-shaped blowhole, which is extremely skewed to the left. Sperm whales spout (breathe) 3–5 times per minute at rest, increasing to 6–7 times per minute after a dive. The blow is a noisy, single stream that rises up to 2 metres (6.6 feet) or more above the surface and points forward and left at a 45° angle. On average, females and juveniles blow every 12.5 seconds before dives, while large males blow every 17.5 seconds before dives. A sperm whale killed 160 km (100 mi) south of Durban, South Africa after a 1-hour, 50-minute dive was found with two dogfish (Scymnodon sp.), usually found at the sea floor, in its belly (Wikipedia).

The sperm whale has the longest intestinal system in the world, exceeding 300 meters in larger specimens. Similar to ruminants the sperm whale has a four-chambered stomach. The first secretes no gastric juices and has very thick muscular walls to crush the food (since whales cannot chew) and resist the claw and sucker attacks of swallowed squid. The second chamber is larger and is where digestion takes place. Undigested squid beaks accumulate in the second chamber – as many as 18,000 have been found in some dissected specimens. Most squid beaks are vomited by the whale, but some occasionally make it to the hindgut. Such beaks precipitate the formation of ambergris (Wikipedia).

منظر خلفي لهيكل حوت العنبر والذي يتوسط قاعة الحُوت في متحف التاريخ الطبيعي في مسقط ، سلطنة عُمان ... تصوير البروفيسور دكتور نورمان علي خلف ... 23.09.2017

A rear view of the 14 meters long Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus) skeleton at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman .. Selfie Photo by the Author … 23.09.2017. http://cetacea.webs.com/

In 1959, the heart of a 22 metric-tons (24 short-tons) male taken by whalers was measured to be 116 kilograms (256 pound), about 0.5% of its total mass. The circulatory system has a number of specific adaptations for the aquatic environment. The diameter of the aortic arch increases as it leaves the heart. This bulbous expansion acts as a windkessel, ensuring a steady blood flow as the heart rate slows during diving. The arteries that leave the aortic arch are positioned symmetrically. There is no costocervical artery. There is no direct connection between the internal carotid artery and the vessels of the brain. Their circulatory system has adapted to dive at great depths, as much as 2,250 metres (7,382 feet). Myoglobin, which stores oxygen in muscle tissue, is much more abundant than in terrestrial animals. The blood has a high density of red blood cells, which contain oxygen-carrying haemoglobin. The oxygenated blood can be directed towards only the brain and other essential organs when oxygen levels deplete. The spermaceti organ may also play a role by adjusting buoyancy. The arterial retia mirabilia are extraordinarily well-developed. The complex arterial retia mirabilia of the sperm whale are more extensive and larger than those of any other cetacean (Wikipedia).

البروفيسور دكتور نورمان علي خلف أمام هيكل ذكر حوت العنبر والذي يتوسط قاعة الحُوت في متحف التاريخ الطبيعي في مسقط ، سلطنة عُمان .. تصوير المؤلف .. 23.09.2017

Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf infront of the Sperm Whale skeleton at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman .. Selfie Photo by the Author ... 23.09.2017. http://cetacea.webs.com/

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Gordon, J.C.D. (1991). Evaluating a method for determining the length of sperm whales (Physeter catodon) from their vocalizations. Journal of Zoology, London. 224 (2): 301–314. 
Haza, Ruba (June 18, 2017). 20-metre sperm whale found dead on Fujairah coast.The National. https://www.thenational.ae/uae/environment/20-metre-sperm-whale-found-dead-on-fujairah-coast-1.83187. 
Hirota, K. & Barnes, L. G. (5 April 2006). A new species of Middle Miocene sperm whale of the genus Scaldicetus (Cetacea; Physeteridae) from Shiga-mura, Japan. Island Arc. 3 (4): 453–472. 
Holthuis L. B. (1987). The scientific name of the sperm whale. Marine Mammal Science. 3 (1): 87–89. 
Huggenberger, Stefan; Michel Andre & Helmut H. A. Oelschlager (2014). The nose of the sperm whale - overviews of functional design, structural homologies and evolution. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom: 1–24.  
Irfan M. (2017). First live sperm whales sighted in Pakistani waters: WWF (VIDEO)Daily Pakistan. Retrieved on September 21, 2017. 
Jongbloed, Marijcke (2004). Whales and Dolphins in the Gulf. http://www.alshindagah.com/janfeb2004/whales.html 
Kasuya, Toshio (July 1991). Density dependent growth in North Pacific sperm whales. Marine Mammal Science. USA: Wiley. 7 (3): 230–257. 

قطاع طولي لأحد أسنان حوت العنبر يبين طبقات النمو المُزدوجة السنوية فيها .. عدسة المؤلف .. 23.09.2017

Sperm Whale teeth section showing the annual double growth layers ... Photo by the Author ... 23.09.2017. http://cetacea.webs.com/

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie’t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman (1982). A’maar Al-Haywanat (Animal Ages). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 18, Third Year, First Semester, Saturday 6.11.1982. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 7. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). Blue Whales (Balaenoptera musculus) from the State of Kuwait, Arabian Gulf. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 14, Fifth Year, Shawal 1407 AH, June 1987 AD. pp. 1-14. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). The Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 26, Tenth Year, January 1992. pp. 1-3. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae’q Al-Nouma’n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (Gründer) (seit Juni 2001). Wale und Delphine Club Yahoo Group. https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Wale_und_Delphine/info 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004 / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten. Zweite erweiterte Auflage, August 2004: 460 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/& eBook: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/59405994/book-gazelle-the-palestinian-biological-bulletin-a-scientific-journey-in-palestine-arabia-and-europe-between-1983-2004-by-norman-ali-khalaf-von-jaffa-2004 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Die Wal Sonderausstellung "Delphinidae Delphionidae" und "Kleinwale in Nord- und Ostsee" im Museum Alexander Koenig in Bonn, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 35, Twenty-second Year, September 2004. pp. 1. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Der Schweinswal (Phocoena phocoena) in der Nord- und Ostsee ... The Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 36, Twenty-second Year, October 2004. pp. 1-7. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Thema des Tages (5. Januar 2005): In See gespülter Indopazifischer Buckeldelfin (Sousa chinensis) in Thailand nach Tagen gerettet. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 37, Twenty-third Year, January 2005. pp. 1-3. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Story of Prophet Yunus (Jonah) and the Whale. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005. pp. 9-13. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Jaffa (Yaffa): The History of an Old Palestinian Arab City on the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 7-8. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Andromeda Sea Monster of Jaffa. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 8. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005. / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palaestina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980 - 2005. ISBN 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage, August 2005: 376 Seiten. Publisher: Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm & eBook: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/59407769/book-aquatica-arabica-an-aquatic-scientific-journey-in-palestine-arabia-and-europe-between-1980-2005-by-norman-ali-khalaf-von-jaffa-2005  & eBook: https://joom.ag/nN6L

Khalaf, Norman Ali (2005, 2006, 2007). Chapter 3: Geography, Flora and Fauna. Pages 32-39. in: Palestine: A Guide. By Mariam Shahin, Photography by George Azar. Co-Author: Norman Ali Khalaf. Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Publishing Group, 2005, 2006, 2007. xi + 471 pages. Appendices to page 500. http://ipsnewsite.mysite4now.com/journals.aspx?id=7323&jid=1&href=fulltext 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). A Bryde’s Whale (Balaenoptera edeni) Stranding on Al Mamzar Beach, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 50. February 2006. pp. 1-5. https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Quastenflosser/conversations/messages/22 

عظام الحوض الضامرة في هيكل حوت العنبر .. تصوبر المؤلف .. 23.09.2017

Sperm Whale pelvis (hip bone) … Photo by the Author … http://cetacea.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Mammalia Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2006. / Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. ISBN 3-00-017294-7. Erste Auflage, Juli 2006, 484 pp. Publisher: Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/mammaliaarabica.htm & eBook (PDF): https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4YzoDUtvuaZeTFCV0ZzWGhTYTg/view?usp=sharing

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Felidae Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2007 / Felidae Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2007. ISBN 978-3-00-019568-6. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli (July) 2007, 300 pp. Self-Publisher: Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic, German and English). Doctoral Dissertation. Ashwood University, USA. Doctor of Science Degree in Zoology (Summa Cumm Laude) on 26.09.2007. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/felidaearabica.htm & Doctoral Dissertation : https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/59397999/doctorate-dissertation-felidae-arabica-by-norman-ali-bassam-khalaf-doctor-of-science-ashwood-university-usa-2007 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Arabica. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (Fauna of Palestine). In: Wikipedia-Arabic, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, September 2007, Sha’ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (Article in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Cetacea Palaestina: The Whales and Dolphins in Palestinian Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008, Thu Al-Qi’ada 1429 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://cetacea-palaestina.webs.com/& https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Wale_und_Delphine/conversations/messages/329 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm  

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm  

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2012). Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus Lilljeborg, 1861) sighted off the Mediterranean Coast of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 100, January 2012. pp. 1-6. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/message/90 & http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Wale_und_Delphine/message/344 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 Seiten / Pages (English / German Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). † Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013 : A New Coelacanth Fish Fossil Species from the Anthracothere Hill in Al-Naqab, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 107, November 2013, Muharram 1435 AH. pp. 30-38. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/macropomoidespalaestina.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2014). Fauna Palaestina – Part Four. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2014 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Vier. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2014. ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2014, Ramadan 1435 H. pp. 456 (English part 378 pages and Arabic part 78 pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-part-1.webs.com/faunapalaestina4.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Ceratosaur Dinosaur Elaphrosaurus bambergi Janensch, 1920 Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 117, September 2014, Thu Al-Qi’da 1435 AH. pp. 1-33. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-dinosaur.webs.com/ & http://issuu.com/dr-normanalibassamkhalaf/docs/dinosaurs_at_beit_zeit_al_quds_jeru & http://www.joomag.com/magazine/gazelle-the-palestinian-biological-bulletin-issn-0178-6288-number-117-september-2014-pp-1-33/0426645001392611970?page=1 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). Dinasurat Al Quds (Dinosaurs of Jerusalem). Dialogue with Prof. Dr. Norman Khalaf-von Jaffa. National Geographic Arabiya Magazine (October 2014, Pages 52--53). https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/15412670595

منظر خلفي لهيكل حوت العنبر والذي يتوسط قاعة الحُوت في متحف التاريخ الطبيعي في مسقط ، سلطنة عُمان ... تصوير البروفيسور دكتور نورمان علي خلف ... 23.09.2017

A rear view of the 14 meters long Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus) skeleton at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman .. Photo by the Author … 23.09.2017. http://cetacea.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). A Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Stranding on Failaka Island, State of Kuwait. Gazelle - The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178-6288). Number 119. November 2014. pp. 1-13. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-kuwait.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) Skeleton at Dubai Mall, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 120, December 2014. pp. 1-29. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-dinosaur.webs.com/sauropod-dubai-mall 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Dinasurat Al-Quds Al-Shareef, Filasteen Al-Muhtala / Dinosaurs of Al-Quds )Jerusalem(, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 122, February 2015. pp. 1-11. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (in Arabic). http://palestine-dinosaur.webs.com/dinosaur-al-quds-palestine 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Plants and Animals unique to Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 125, May 2015. pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine-2.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2015). Fauna Palaestina – Part Five. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2016 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Fünf. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2016. ISBN 978-9950-383-92-0. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2015, Ramadan 1436 H. 448 pp. (English Part 304 Pages and the Arabic Part 144 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-books.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). The 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) Skeleton at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait City, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 128, August 2015, pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-kuwait.webs.com/blue-whale-skeleton 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). The Umm Al-Maradem Island Whale Skeleton at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait City, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 130, October 2015, pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-kuwait.webs.com/umm-al-maradem-whale 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). A Scientific Visit to Wadi El-Hitan (Whales Valley), Al-Fayyum, Al-Sahraa Al-Gharbiah (Western Desert), Egypt. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178 – 6288). Number 134, February 2016, pp. 1-44. Sharjah and Dubai, United Arab Emirates. http://cetacea.webs.com/wadi-el-hitan 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). Whale Bone Remains at the Diving Village, Heritage Village, Dubai, United Arab Emirates and a Note on the Whales and Dolphins in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178 – 6288). Number 141, September 2016, pp. 1-19. Sharjah and Dubai, United Arab Emirates. http://cetacea.webs.com/whale-bones-dubai

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). Haywanat Falastin (Fauna of Palestine) حيوانات فلسطين . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 144, December 2016, pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (In Arabic). http://animals-of-palestine-2.webs.com/fauna-of-palestine-arabic 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (2017). Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758) Nest Adoption at the Reef Dive Resort, Mataking Island, State of Sabah, Federation of Malaysia in 2015. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 149, May 2017, pp. 1-30. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.sea-turtles-1.webs.com 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (2017). Diaphorodoris olakhalafi Khalaf, 2017 : A New Dorid Nudibranch Sea Slug Species from the Sea of Khorfakkan, Gulf of Oman, Arab Sea, Indian Ocean. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 149, May 2017, pp. 31-47. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://marine-life-uae.webs.com/diaphorodoris-olakhalafi & https://issuu.com/dr-normanalibassamkhalaf/docs/nudibranch_ola_khalaf & https://newsstand.joomag.com/en/gazelle-the-palestinian-biological-bulletin-issn-0178-6288-number-149-may-2017-pp-31-47/0798719001494476364

منظر خلفي لهيكل حوت العنبر مع عظام الحوض الضامرة في قاعة الحُوت في متحف التاريخ الطبيعي في مسقط ، سلطنة عُمان ... تصوير البروفيسور دكتور نورمان علي خلف ... 23.09.2017

A rear view of the 14 meters long Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus) skeleton with the pelvic bones at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman .. Photo by the Author … 23.09.2017. http://cetacea.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa (2017). Whale vertebra from a stranded Whale in 1965 on the beach of Qidfa Village, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 153, September 2017, pp. 1-6. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://cetacea.webs.com/whale-vertebrae-qidfa-uae 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (Photography) (2017). Trapania norakhalafae Khalaf, 2017: A New Dorid Nudibranch Sea Slug Species from the Dibba Sea, East Coast of the United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. ترابانيا نورة خلفي خلف ، 2017 : نوع جديد من بُزاق البحر عاري الخياشيم من بحر دِبا ، الساحل الشرقي لدولة الإمارات العربية المُتحدة ، خليج عُمان ، بحر العرب ، المُحيط الهندي . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178-6288. Number 153, September 2017, pp. 7-30. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic & English). http://nudibranch-uae.webs.com/trapania-norakhalafae 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam (September 2017). YouTube : Whale Skeletons at Muscat Natural History Museum, Oman. https://youtu.be/O_fSJdG0dfc 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (Photography) (2018). Ola Khalaf’s Nudibranch Sea Slug (Diaphorodoris olakhalafi Khalaf, 2017). بُزاق بحر عُلا خلف عاري الخياشيم ( ديافورودوريس عُلا خلفي خلف ، 2017) . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 159, March 2018, pp. 1-22. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic & English). http://nudibranch.webs.com/diaphorodoris-olakhalafi 

Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (Photography) (2018). Presence of the Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata bissa Rüppell, 1835) at Lima Rock and Al-Dimaniyat Islands, Gulf of Oman, Sultanate of Oman. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 164, August 2018, pp. 1-13. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://sea-turtles-1.webs.com/hawksbill-sea-turtle 

Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa (2018). Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758) Skeleton at the Natural History Museum in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 165, September 2018, pp. 1-31. Published by Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Department for Environmental Research and Media, National Research Center, University of Palestine, Gaza, State of Palestine. http://cetacea.webs.com/

دائرة البروفيسور نورمان خلف لأبحاث البيئة والإعلام البيئي ، المركز القومي للبحوث ، جامعة فلسطين ، غزة , دولة فلسطين

Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Department for Environmental Research and Media, National Research Center, University of Palestine, Gaza, State of Palestine.

Lambert, O.; Bianucci, G. & de Muizon, C. (August 2008). A new stem-sperm whale (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Physeteroidea) from the Latest Miocene of Peru. Comptes Rendus Palevol. 7 (6): 361–369. 

Landais, Emmanuelle (Staff Reporter)  (July 19, 2010). Group chances upon dead sperm whale in Dubai. Dwarf sperm whale found beached along Palm Jebel Ali had only recently died. Gulf News. http://gulfnews.com/news/uae/environment/group-chances-upon-dead-sperm-whale-in-dubai-1.655977 

Lavery, Trish L.; Ben Roudnew; Peter Gill; Justin Seymour; Laurent Seuront; Genevieve Johnson; James G. Mitchell & Victor Smetacek (2010). Iron defecation by sperm whales stimulates carbon export in the Southern OceanProceedings of the Royal Society B. 277 (1699): 3527–3531. 

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